With 200 million people, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and has about the population of the second and third most populous countries in Ethiopia and Egypt, each of which has a population of about 98 million. With a nominal GDP of $376 billion, or about 17% of Africa`s GDP, it is just ahead of South Africa, which accounts for 16% of the African economy. Given that Nigeria is such an important country in terms of population and economy, its absence was particularly striking when the agreement was first signed. South African President Cyril Ramaphosa stressed this in comments on July 12, 2018, commenting: “The continent is waiting for Nigeria and South Africa. Trade between us will allow us to keep more resources on the continent. South Africa then signed the agreement.  Eritrea did not sign due to tensions with Ethiopia, but following the Eritrea-Ethiopia summit in 2018, the AU Commissioner for Trade and Industry expects Eritrea to sign the agreement.  In March 2018, three separate agreements were signed at the 10th Extraordinary Meeting of the African Union on the AfCFTA: the African Continental Free Trade Agreement, the Kigali Declaration; and the Protocol on the Free Movement of Persons. The Protocol on Free Movement aims to create a visa-free zone within the AfCFTA countries and to support the creation of the African Union passport.  At the Kigali Summit on March 21, 2018, 44 countries signed the AfCFTA, 47 the Kigali Declaration, and 30 the Protocol on the Free Movement of Persons. . . .